"THE AID I WANT IS NOT RESEARCHING BUT CHECKING AND VERIFYING FACTS WHICH HAVE ALREADY BEEN ASCERTAINED": LARGE ARCHIVE, INCLUDING 29 LETTERS SIGNED BY CHURCHILL, RELATING TO HIS MAGISTERIAL BIOGRAPHY OF HIS ANCESTOR THE DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH
CHURCHILL, Winston. Archive of material relating to Marlborough: His Life and Times. London and other locations, 1933-38. Twenty-nine typed signed letters on 34 sheets, 2 of which measure 5 by 8 inches and the remaining of which measure 8 by 10 inches. WITH: Galley proof, measuring 10 by 14 inches. WITH: Map leaves, notes, typed carbon contents leaf, secretarially signed letters, and page-proof corrections, most measuring 8 by 10 inches. WITH: 10 telegrams from Churchill of varying dimensions. Housed together in a black binder and a custom clamshell box. $98,500.
An exceptional rarity: large archive of material relating to the editing and publishing of Churchill’s Marlborough: His Life and Times, comprising 29 typed letters signed from Churchill, nearly all to his notorious proofreader, C.C. Wood, together with a galley proof page with corrections in Churchill’s hand and other materials.
John Churchill, the first Duke of Marlborough, started his court service as a page during the reign of Charles II and ended it as Master-General of the Ordnance of the English army under George I. He served under five sovereigns, distinguished himself on the battlefield and as a diplomat, and was once even imprisoned in the Tower of London for treason. Handsome and charming— Lord Chesterfield described him as "irresistible to either man or woman"— Marlborough's military strategy led the Duke of Wellington to say that he could "conceive nothing greater than Marlborough at the head of an English army." Future prime minister Winston Churchill, who was named after Marlborough's father and was the nephew of the Eighth Duke of Marlborough, wrote this history of his famous ancestor to refute earlier criticisms of Marlborough by the historian Thomas Babington Macaulay. "Though it was a commissioned work, Churchill would not have invested nearly a million words and ten years had it not had special significance for him. For he wrote about a man who was not only his ancestor, an invincible general, the first of what became the Spencer-Churchill dukes of Marlborough, and a maker of modern Britain, but also a supreme example of heroism in the two vocations which mainly interested Churchill and in which ultimate triumph seemed to have eluded him— politics and war making" (Wiedhorn, 110). "It may be his greatest book. To understand the Churchill of the Second World War, the majestic blending of his commanding English with historical precedent, one has to read Marlborough. Only in its pages can one glean an understanding of the root of the speeches which inspired Britain to stand when she had little to stand with" (Langworth, 164). "The scholarship seems formidable, as in no other of his works. Picking his way through conflicting testimony and evaluations, Churchill, while leaning on William Coxe's 1818 biography of the duke, carefully weighs each writer's reliability. Yet the tone is not as detached as might be expected from an academic historian… Marlborough, with his broad European view and his apparent sense of Britain's imperial destiny, is the fulcrum, and all the other characters, parties, and issues take their places accordingly… the literati hostile to Marlborough— Pope, Swift, Thackeray, Macaulay— are harshly expelled from the witness stand" (Wiedhorn, 113-114).
This archive of correspondence highlights both Churchill's meticulousness as a writer and editor and his relationship with his editor Charles Wood. Although Charles Wood first worked with Churchill on his book Marlborough in the 1930's, he was hired full-time in 1948 to proofread Churchill's massive multi-volume work-in-progress, The Second World War, joining Churchill's literary staff of secretaries (who typed on silent typewriters as Churchill dictated), research assistants, and advisors. Wood became "an essential member of the team and no error escaped his eye" (Gilbert VIII: 344). "The main addition to Churchill's literary entourage in 1948 was Charles Wood— a retired proofreader who had worked on Marlborough in the 1930s. Slight and small, Wood was the same age as Churchill but did not smoke or drink. His main virtue… was 'a ruthless eye for misprints and inconsistencies.…. A meticulous proofreader, Wood was pedantic and opinionated. This, as much as Churchill's habitual parsimony, probably explains the reluctance to bring him on board. Even then, Churchill issued firm instructions about reducing, not increasing, the number of commas, identifying inconsistencies without arguing their merits, and certainly not going through original documents. But Wood was soon exceeding his brief in typically abrasive style….. [Churchill once called] Wood 'indefatigable, interminable, intolerable— but he was determined not to repeat the errors in The Gathering Storm. So… [Wood] became a fixed if fractious member of Churchill's team… [The work was] subjected to the green pen of Mr. Wood— a process that became known as 'Wooding" (Reynolds, In Command of History: Churchill Fighting and Writing the Second World War, 149-150, 153).
Typed letters signed from Churchill to C. C. Wood, chief copy editor at George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. relating to the publication of his monumental biography Marlborough: His Life and Times. Most letters addressed "Dear Mr. Wood" in Churchill's hand and all letters signed by Churchill in his hand unless otherwise noted.
1. April 18th, 1933, one page: "I have sent you by Mr. Ashley the three last chapters for reprint. There will now come in quick succession all the chapters for final galley proof. I shall want twelve copies of all the reprints and you had better order any extra ones you may require yourselves. I am also send you the key to the new chaperisation—two copies so that you may send one to the printers." Several corrections in Woods' hand. "Dear Sir" and "Yours sincerely/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand. Two ink spots, pencil markings and underlinings.
2. April 30th, 1933, one page: "I am most carefully considering of course the question of modernising the old letters and documents. Up to the present I am modernising Marlborough's letters and those of the Duchess where quoted, but I am not modernising old documents which are cited in the text for the purpose of creating atmosphere. It may be that a further revision will be necessary later on." With diagonal line across page in ink. "Yours very sincerely/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
3. May 9th, 1933, one page: "What do you advise about the old style and new style printing? Our plan is to print in old style events clearly English in their preponderance, and in new style those that are clearly Continental. When a date affects both England and the Continent we print both styles i.e. 4—14, 8—18. How should this be printed? Should it be a 4 with a diagonal line, or 4 on top of the 14 like a fraction, or 4 with 14 in brackets as you have done in certain dual dates. The complications of the year also comes in. It is very tiresome to the reader and should be minimized. Pray state what typography you advise." Churchill has made two corrections in the text and inserted "sometimes" towards the end. In the left margin, in ink, he has shown three forms of the date. With diagonal line across page in ink. "Yours very sincerely/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
4. May 13th, 1933, one page (small sheet): "Thank you for your letter. I am having the book carefully read by Mr. Marsh for his orthography, and will send him your instructions at the same time." With diagonal line across page in ink. "Dear Sir" and "Yours W S Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
5. July 13th, 1933, one and ½ page: "I send you herewith (1) a list of illustrations, (2) those photographs not already send you yesterday. From these two sets you can make up a complete series according to my table. The arrangement is provisional and the captions which require further study will be supplied later. In all there are 38 illustrations. As you mentioned 32, I have therefore marked 6 with red crosses which can if desired be omitted. Pray let me know promptly. I send you also 6 facsimiles, only one of which, the Camaret Bay Letter cannot be printed with the text. This letter requires special treatment. It never works to have a fold both ways i.e. with an angle in it. I have therefore been forced to cut the sheet so as to make two pages of equal length. This can be printed as simple fold-outs on the lines I have folded them which will be quite convenient to the reader and not get crumpled. A note will explain that the actual size of the document has thus been affected. This letter is vital to the text. The numerals which are provisional as regards order will be convenient for reference in our correspondence. You might decide on technical grounds whether N. 8 the Deed of Annuity and No. 25 Marlborough's letter to William of Orange should not be interleaved instead of being printed in the text. On the whole I should prefer them interleaved. In addition to all these there are 13 maps and plans 3 of which fold out, 2 of them in two colours. All the rest make up in the text." Two ink diagonal green lines across first page indicate it has been read. Light foxing and paper clip stain to left margin. "Dear Mr. Harrup" and "Yours sincerely/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
6. July 18th, 1933, one page: "Marlborough illustrations. Do not for the present proceed with (5) Arabella, (19) Prince George of Denmark or (26) William III. I have found better pictures which I will send to you shortly. Do not proceed also with (4) Winston and Arabella, (16) Dartmouth, (22) Sunderland, (23) Rochester. Nos. 32, 33 and 34, Fenwick, Ailesbury and Shrewsbury could be reproduced as vignettes on one page. I am awaiting your letter about the illustrations." Diagonal thin green line across page indicating it had been read. "Dear Sir" and "Yours sincerely/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
7. August 21st, 1934, one page: "I send you herewith Volume I with the corrigenda dealt with. You will see from the enclosed letters that there are one or two extra points which have been brought to my notice. I accept all the corrections which are found in this volume and I am very much surprised to find how few errors there are—nearly all of which are trivial. Kindly note the dedication, page 7, also pages 53, 130, 132 and 358. I have dealt with Professor Trevelyan's complaint. Do you not think there should be a short prefatory note to the new edition? If so I attach a draft." Some spotting and browning to lower edge. "Dear Mr. Wood," "month Index" and "Yours sincerely/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
8. January 9, 1935, one page: "I am not expecting to publish Volume III of Marlborough till the spring of 1936, as there is so much political distraction at the present time." "Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours sincerely/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
9. May 21, 1935, one page: "Please see the enclosed letter from Colonel Pakenham-Walsh and the sketches illustrating Ramillies. You said that if instead of going to Swaines I would come to you, you could save me much expense for the drawings of Volume III. Could you let me know what you can do about them. These sketches of course are only in the rough, and I have to put my own comments upon them. Therefore kindly send them back after using them to explain to the draftsman the kind of work he would be expected to do…" With date correction in Churchill's hand. "Dear Mr. Wood" and "21st" and "Yours WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
10. May 28, 1935, one page: "Would there be any objection to my seeing if I can get a competitive offer from Swaine? He might be ready to come down in price himself, and it would be convenient to work with him as he knows my methods. If he is not prepared to come near to the new level, I shall certainly put myself in your hands." "Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours very truly/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
11. August 6, 1935, one page: "I send you herewith chapters V and VI which have been completely reconstituted and a new chapter, VIII. For your convenience I append a list of the chapters; VII 'The Year of Triumph' is nearly done. It may be possible to cut down the correspondence later. I also send you chapters I, II and III for second revise, leaving only 'The Battle of Ramillies' which I will send in a few days. Pray let me have six copies of all these as they come through. I will send you very shortly a number of maps and I shall be glad if your man would draw them out and let me have them in draft. Please therefore make the arrangement you proposed with him. I will not worry about Swain's." With "for revise" in Churchill's hand. [Together with one page of typed list of chapters]. "Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours sincerely/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
12. October 10, 1935, one and ½ pages: "Many thanks for your letter. The aid I want is not researching but checking and verifying facts which have already been ascertained. I will dictate a section of a chapter from the many works of reference I have read. I will then mark the various points which require to be more precisely verified, for instance the actual words of a quotation, the exact reference in the footnotes, dates, names, chronology, etc. This is very similar to the work which your readers already do when they read the proofs only it would be rather more extended. At the same time as I send the section for checking I will mention the books where the references occur and give the closest indication I have as to where they can be found. This will enable me to get on a good deal more quickly. Let us anyhow make the experiment and see what trouble is involved for your staff." With notes "abouts in the books" and "Also I will send some of the books you may not have. W." in Churchill's hand. "Dear Mr. Wood" and "With many thanks/ Yours sincerely/ W S Churchill" in Churchill's hand. Rust stain from paper clip at upper left corner.
13. October 14, 1935, one page: "I send you another chapter [in pencil in another hand, "Chapter XI, 'Harley'"]. There are a good many queries in my mind about it, but it is maturing sufficiently to be printed straight away. I will then read it over and mark the points which require special attention. I am afraid there will now be a break in Marlborough of at least six weeks. But I hope you will have Oudenards before Christmas. The back is then broken." "Dear Mr. Wood" and Yours v(ery) t(ruly)/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
14. March 2, 1936, one page: "I now send you Chapter XVII (re-numbered) 'The Winter Struggle' All the chapters after XI or XII require renumbering, as a new one has come in. I should be glad to have this chapter back in priority after the first and before the main block of reprints. Six reprints will be required in all cases. I see no advantage in spelling Wynendaele 'Wynendale.' Marlborough always uses the shorter version, but we can discuss this later when the general question of names is considered. Meanwhile stet 'dale.' I think the principle to adopt about modernising the letters is to print the new ones which first see the light in their old style and modernise the rest. At any rate do not worry about these changes at this stage in the work." Pen and ink notations in another hand. "Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours sincerely/ WSC" in Churchill's hand.
15. April 28th,1936, one page: "I send you herewith two chapters and also a number of documents which you have already printed. These documents should be inserted in the proofs where I have marked them. I presume they are still in type so will not have to be set up again. I have not modernised them at this stage as they have never yet been published. We shall have to consider later on whether these letters should go into an appendix. It will be easy to lift them from the text as they are in sold blocks. Of course I should very much like to have these chapters back again by Saturday afternoon. I fear however this will not be possible." Pencil and ink notations in another hand. "Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours v(ery) t(ruly)/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
16. June 5th, 1936, one page: "Yours of June 3: Will you kindly ask your brother for a list of all the plans on which he is working which have not been made into zinco blocks, and what state they are in and what is holding them up. I will then deal with each point." Diagonal green ink line across page."Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours v(ery) t(ruly)/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
17. June 16th, 1936, one page: "I have now reached a series of chapters beginning with The Seventh Campaign which have been so recently revised that they do not require immediate reprint. Before I send them in I am anxious to have the maps especially of Oudenarde and Lille. The Brigadier has sent me a list of maps in chronological order of which I send you a copy ticked showing their condition. Perhaps you would mark on this the ones already included in the proofs. Could you accelerate as much as possible the completion of the others which are passed finally in ink." "Yours sincerely/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand. Rust stain from paper clip to upper left corner.
18. June 22nd, 1936, one page (small sheet): "Please note where I have said a new slip is to be taken, these pages have to be interleaved in several various chapters." "Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours sincerely WSC" in Churchill's hand.
19. July 8th, 1936, one page: With regard to the letters quoted in the text, I will finally decide about any cuts in these when the final slip-proofs leave me. As I am having one more re-print, I do not alter them now, neither do I deal with all your queries, 'spelling, capitals and punctuation'. I think the original letters now published for the first time had better be printed in their original form subject only to an occasional adjustment to make them read intelligently. All the other letters already published by various authors should be modernised upon a regular principle. Perhaps in sending me back this new re-print you will ask your readers to carry this out in pencil throughout." Lengthy notes in red ink by a copy editor in blank left margin and underlinings to text. "Yours very truly/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
20. July 17th, 1936, one page: "Sketch 46. This does not give a good idea, as La Motte is obviously going to reach Wynendale before the convoy gets within miles of it. Actually La Motte should be further back where I have shown in red, and the convoy further forward. Sketch 42. Berwick ought to be in the same type as Vendome as he is a foe and not a friend. Can these alterations be made without redrawing and re-engraving? How long will it take, and how much will it cost?" [signed in secretarial hand]. Together with two printed maps, each 7.5 by 10 inches, with wide margins, one map bearing corrections in red ink by Churchill of troop movements of the French commander La Motte. Included is a photocopy of the map, captioned "Situation, Morning September 28" from Chapter XXVI "Wynendael," showing Churchill's red ink corrections specified in the letter. The other map, corrected as per Churchill's instructions, is in Chapter XXV "The Siege of Lille," captioned "August 27—September 5, 1708." Signed in secretarial hand.
21. July 18th, 1936, one page: "I send you herewith a note for the 'blurb' about which one of your colleagues wrote to me. You see I have wavered between the present and past tense. Pray take this as a contribution and let me see what you propose to write upon it." Pencil notations in another hand. "Dear Mr. Wood," "Also 3 more pictures" and "Yours very truly/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
22. August 1, 1936, one page: "You send me a new copy of the enclosed map. It is already in the text, and I commented on it on the proofs 'Where is Villeroy?' Also Ghent and Bruges should (I think) be black as they were in Marlborough's hands. I am sending a duplicate of this letter to the Brigadier. It is of the utmost importance now to know where the remaining maps are. I will get on with the preface as soon as I have completed the chapters. I agree with what you said about the spelling of Wynendael. By all means continue the spelling as 'dale.'" Attached on the upper left is a small printed map captioned in another hand "Flanders: July 1706/ Sketch 14 (slip 199)." Two green ink lines on page. "Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours sincerely/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
23. August 1st, 1936, one page: "I have altered the Ramillies text so as not to be dependent on the old map, which I cannot find. I must ask the Brigadier to make a folder of the Ramillies as well as the one of Oudenarde now under construction. There will have to be a general map of the Low Countries, but that can be repeated with a few more places in it from Volume II, also a general map of Europe and the theatres which can likewise be repeated. The Ramillies playing card was photographed by the King's librarian. It is very old, small and well-worn, and I doubt if any new photograph would be any better. There is no reason why you should not make a print of it slightly larger, and let us see how it looks. I return it to you herewith meanwhile. You have everything now, so far as illustrations and facsimiles are concerned. I shall keep you well supplied day by day with chapters." Green ink lines and underlinings, rust stain from paper clip on top of page. Signed "WSC" and with a few words in his hand ("with a few more places in it").
24. August 3, 1936, two pages: "I send you now everything except the last chapters. Mr. Deakin will be with you tomorrow. There are a number of points for him from the 'Jacobite Raid' chapter onwards, nor are Mr. Marsh's corrections in from that point. Some of these chapters are a good deal pulled about, and if you think fit you had better put them into slip again, keeping enough of the earlier chapters to go on continuously with the page proofing. Chapter 19 about Ghent and Bruges is split in two, altering the numbers thereafter. I do not feel like a lengthy preface, nor is it worth your while to await it. I will, however, do it next before I finish the last chapter, if you wish. What maps are still outstanding? Please discuss all these points with Mr. Deakin. Would you mind asking your proof readers to put down quite clearly their rule about hyphen words. I do not like Mr. Marsh's very full use of hyphens, but what rule do you follow? Macaulay frequently runs the words together with a hyphen, e. g. 'panicstricken.' The great thing is to have a principle and stick to it. With regard to modernization of letters, here is the rule. All letters which have been printed before, unless specially marked by me, should be modernised as you have proposed. All original letters or letters inserted because of their archaic character should only be corrected here and there as I have done for punctuation and to make sense. Contrary to what is said in the preliminary note, all starred documents will have in addition a footnote, Blenheim mss or other source. All spellings of places must agree with the maps unless the maps are definitely wrong. With regard to numbers, I think the following will work: viz. When there is a computation of armies in battalions, squadrons, etc. numerals should be used. Where there are broken numbers, e. g. 7,500 ditto. When numerals are used in some old quoted letter ". Otherwise it is better to spell. In sending these proofs to the printers, please enforce this system. I find we are in practise spelling almost everything and I must say it runs better except as mentioned." Included are twelve edits in Churchill's hand including five words. Titles of seven chapters from Vol. III are penciled at top of first page in another hand. "I do not like the high punctuation… Yours very truly/ Winston S. Churchill," "Dear Mr. Wood" and 12 ink edits including five words in Churchill's hand.
25. November 28th, 1937, two pages: "Illustrations. Kindly send me a list of the sixteen photographs and two prints which I sent you. With regard to your observations: 1. I never thought that Malplaquet and Bouchain should go on one page. On the contrary I contemplated a flap-out for Bouchain one. 2. I agree with you about Wolf; it must be cancelled. 3. Cancel also Godolphin, Shrewsbury, Burnet, Marlborough 11 and Marlborough 13. I must try to find another Marlborough for the frontispiece. Perhaps I can find a miniature. 4. Cancel also Nos. 14 and 16, Cadogan and George I are already used. 5. We must try to find better ones of Blenheim for 17 and 18. These two prints are cancelled. Out of the 16 photographs eight are rejected. This leaves us with eight. I now send you: (a) Lord Orrery (b) Duke of Argyll (c) Jonathan Swift (d) Craggs (the younger) (e) The Old Pretender (or alternatively 9e) 2, whichever is thought the better (f) Townshend (g) Cowper (h) Ormonde (i) Vanbrugh. These have been procured from the National Gallery by Mr. Deakin, and he has been asked to supply the captions for them. Thus I send you the nine, which with the other eight, makes a total of seventeen. It is increasingly difficult to find illustrations which have not been used in the previous volumes. I shall be very glad of any suggestions which you, or your proof readers, feel able to make. Good progress is being made with the maps. I fear we shall not be able to get the book finished by the end of the year; but I hope to have it finally off my hands by the end of February." Together with a sheet in another hand with more information about the portraits. Two words and "Yours very truly/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
26. December 14th, 1937, one page: "This is an addition to the chapter called The New Regime. You could make the slips 200 A, B, C etc. I do not think it necessary to reprint Chapters XX to XXV at present, as their condition has very nearly reached its final form. I send you the latest Contents Table whch will enable you to keep track of the various changes which impose themselves at this stage. The five chapters following those you now have, namely XX to XXIV inclusive, do not require reprint at this stage, as there are not structural changes, and the minor revisions can be effected on the current proof." Accompanied by two carbon typed pages of the contents of Vol. IV. "Sincerely WSC" in Churchill's hand. Some foxing.
27. January 1st, 1938, one page: "I am very much obliged to you for the extraordinary expedition with which the whole of the eight chapters have been returned. I send you the enclosed letter to Mr. Harrap, which kindly read and deliver to him. Perhaps you will inform me upon the points mentioned. In my absence please keep in touch with Mr. Deakin. All letters to Chartwell will be forwarded to me." "My dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours v(er)y t(ruly)/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand. Rust stain from paper clip to top of page.
28. January 4th, 1938, two pages: "I send you herewith three chapters in which I have made heavy cuts, in order to see how the changes will look. We waste space in having a great many extracts of only five or six lines in small print; there are the short heads, there are the dates and the white lines attaching to each of them. It is much better in these small extracts to use the large type in inverted commas, and run straight through the paragraph with dots representing omissions where necessary. I have also run several letters together, separated by dots to make one continuous paragraph, although retained in small print. In this case there will be no quotation marks the necessary phrases such as 'Marlborough wrote to so-and-so' or 'so-and-so reported to Marlborough' should either go in a square bracket as you have sometimes done or merely protected by commas. You will see specimens of both these methods applied in the abridged text. I think there is more to be said for the square brackets but let me know your view. Please send two copies only of each of these chapters to me in three separate envelopes at the Chateau de l'Horizon, Cannes, as soon as possible. Have any of the diagrams to be inserted in the text yet been put on the stone? I have passed at least twenty. Please get in touch with the Brigadier and with your brother and have all I have passed put on the stone and struck off. There will be others still to come but let us get as many as we can. Will you write to me also about reducing the index to twenty pages. I hope you got the blurb all right. It was intended for a guide and you are at liberty to make additions to it as the responsibility for it rests with the firm. It would be well, however, to send me a proof if time permits. Pray write to me fully on these various points." Titles of the three chapters from Vol. IV are penciled at top of the first page in another hand, on letterhead of the British Embassy, Paris. "Yours very truly/ Winston S. Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
29. October 29th, 1938, one page (small sheet): "I am aware of no correction which I desire to make, and I have not noticed any serious mistakes pointed out by the reviewers." On smaller sheet, with handwritten note by Churchill: "I enclose you a letter wh has reached me. Yours truly, W. S. Churchill." "Dear Mr. Wood" and "Yours very truly/ WS Churchill" in Churchill's hand.
30. Together with: One large page of a gallery proof entitled "Marlborough—II Slip 241D," 10 by 14 inches. Tear at mid-horizontal fold in blank margin, not near writing, expertly repaired on verso. Edits in red and blue pencil with 22 words in Churchill's hand: "in the history of the Fall of the House of Stuart has bequeathed us a monumental work" and "Imperial commander Prince Louis of Badin" along with cross-outs and other editorial marks.
31. May 30th, 1933 from Churchill to Wood with Churchill's signature clipped.
32. 12 letters dated between July 1933 and April 1938 with excellent content concerning the book, with copious annotations (some possibly in Churchill's hand), signed secretarially for Churchill.
33. 14 pages of proof corrections, copiously annotated in multiple hands (some possibly by Churchill).
34. 2 proof maps, one showing Minorca, the other Piedmond and Lombardy, giving troop positions and showing the positions of opposing armies and lines of circumvallation.
35. 10 telegrams sent from Churchill to Wood, as well as several other miscellaneous notes.
Occasional marginal marks from paper clips to some pages. Rare and important.